Law is the set of rules that governs behavior within a society or community. Depending on the jurisdiction, law can be established by social or governmental institutions, or may be created by private individuals.
Legal systems vary from nation to nation and can be divided into civil law, common law and religious law. Many countries adopt a combination of these traditions, but the majority follow a civil code system.
Criminal laws are statutes that punish conduct that is illegal or that threatens the social order. Civil laws deal with disputes between people or organizations that are not crimes. Some other examples are tort law, which involves compensation for injuries or property damage.
The rule of law is a principle that the government and private actors are accountable to, and that justice is delivered in an equitable manner. This includes rights to privacy, equality, freedom of speech and religion, and the protection of personal and family integrity.
Some of the major principles that contribute to achieving the rule of law are fairness, transparency and a sense of responsibility for one’s actions. These are considered the essential features of a sound and ethical society.
Justification of legal norms is a process that determines whether a specific rule or law has the force and validity required by the law. It can be based on an empirical basis, or it can be justified by other more general rules of law that are recognized as valid.
Typically, legal norms are validated at the moment they become part of a legal order, and remain valid until the legal order is changed by explicit derogation or automatic derogation, which allows for the adoption of a new normative act that replaces it. This process of validation and derogation is also known as ‘vacatio legis’, from the Latin word for “validity”.
The legal system in a country can be distinguished from other societies by its legal tradition, history, connections with other nations, or its adherence to international standards. This system often consists of a written constitution and judicial precedents that guide the governing body, but it can also include customary laws and practices, which are generally accepted by most nations.
In a civil system, the law is codified (organized) into written documents and usually arranged in codes, which are easy to understand for citizens and jurists. A civil code is organized to promote cooperation, order, and predictability and to provide a flexible system of law that can adapt to change.
This system of law is a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. It also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice.
Law is a complex phenomenon that involves the power of people, the shape of the physical world and the mental operations of humans. The defining characteristics of the legal system are its stability and observability, and its ability to bind people together in a socially just and cohesive way.